The Batcreek and
Archaeological evidence of Christ in America
Michigan Tablet depicting Christ's crucifixion. Tablet is made of a clay material, fired or sun dried, found in an Indian burial mound in Michigan, now located in the archives of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah. Photograph ©, courtesy of David A. Deal.
In the Smithsonian upside down in a glass case for one hundred years, the Bat Creek Inscription is a small stone approximately 4.5 by 1.75 inches which was found in 1889 by the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology. Excavator John W. Emmert was excavating Indian burial mounds in Bat Creek, Tennessee, about 40 miles south of Knoxville.
In one mound was discovered 9 skeletons, eight with their heads pointing north, and one with its head facing south. Under the head of the one facing south was found the Bat Creek Stone and 2 bracelets.
The inscription was originally thought to be Cherokee and was annotated as such. The stone was then archived in the Smithsonian for almost 100 years. However, in the 1960s, some researchers noted that when a photo of the stone was held upside down, it looked like Phoenician and Canaanite scripts. Professor Cyrus H. Gordon of Brandais University was sent a photograph of the stone, and he immediately recognized it to be Hebrew and translated it"Unto Judah". The letters were similar to those used in the 4th century BC on letter seals and in the 11Q paleo Leviticus in the Dead Sea Scrolls.
"Well, all is not lost. There are those who have begun to read and understand some of these records of the ancient people, and more and more of these artifacts are coming forth which will probably be read. In time, if accurate, these interpretations of histories left in the dust may tell us the truth about those ancient people. We will accept these interpretations until a better interpretation comes along.
So far it has been estimated that up to 30,000 slate, copper, brass, and clay tablets have been unearthed, mostly from the state of Michigan. To my knowledge, none have been read or translated by the Indians. Some of those who have started reading some of these believe there may be up to five languages used on the tablets.
Along with the writing on each tablet, to help the reader better understand, it appears that in most cases there are cartoon-type engravings, in most cases depicting what is being written. In most cases the drawings are plain and easy to understand.
Most depict events recorded in religious history from the creation of man-stories of which even the Indians and the world do not have a clear knowledge.
The samples, which follow, were found mostly in Michigan. To begin with we present a map of Michigan which shows the number of mounds that had been found in the various counties up through the year 1924. This map is found in the book “Michigan Prehistory Mysteries” by Betty Sodders and is available through the foundation.
So far it has been estimated that about 30,000 tablets have been found, mostly from mounds in Michigan. But there are many more thousands of mounds found throughout most of the eastern half of the United States starting just west of the Mississippi River and running to the Atlantic Ocean. I wonder how many more have been found of which we are not aware and how many could be found if we put forth the effort to bring more of this information to the forefront." BMS Foundation.
Elephants in America (Michigan Tablet Stone)
Leather Pouch Containing Parchment Pages of the Book of Leviticus Found in 1815 Buried Underground by a Convulsion Described at the Crucifixion of Jesus:
"Joseph Merrick, Esq., a highly respected character in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, gave the following account: That in 1815, he was leveling some ground under and near an old woodshed standing on a place of his situated on Indian Hill. He ploughed and conveyed away old chips and earth to some depth. After the work was done, walking over the place, he discovered, near where the earth had been dug the deepest, a black strap, as it appeared about six inches in length, and one and a half in breadth, and about the thickness of a leather trace to a harness. He perceived it had at each end, a loop of some hard substance, probably for the purpose of carrying it. He conveyed it to his house, and threw it into an old tool box. He afterwards found it thrown out at the door, and again conveyed it to the box.
"After some time, he thought he would examine it; but in attempting to cut it, found it as hard as a bone; he succeeded, however, in getting it open, and found it was formed of two pieces of thick rawhide, sewed and made water-tight with the sinews of some animal, and gummed over; and in the fold were contained four folded pieces of parchment. They were of a dark yellow hue, and contained some kind of writing. The neighbors, coming in to see the strange discovery, tore one of the pieces to atoms, in the true Hun and Vandal style. The other three pieces Mr. Merrick saved, and sent them to Cambridge, where they were examined, and discovered to have been written with a pen, in Hebrew, plain and legible. The writings on the three remaining pieces of parchment were quotations from the Old Testament. See Deut., Chapter 6, from 4th to 9th verses inclusive, also Chapter 11, verses 13th to 21st inclusive, also Chapter 11, verses 13th to 21st inclusive; and Exodus, Chapter 13, 11th to 16th inclusive; to which the reader can refer, if he has the curiosity to read this most interesting discovery.
(Parley P. Pratt, A Voice of Warning , p.79-,82-83)
the convulsion described:
5 And it came to pass in the thirty and fourth year, in the first month, on the fourth day of the month, there arose a great storm, such an one as never had been known in all the land.
6 And there was also a great and terrible tempest; and there was terrible thunder, insomuch that it did shake the whole earth as if it was about to divide asunder.
7 And there were exceedingly sharp lightnings, such as never had been known in all the land.
8 And the city of Zarahemla did take fire.
9 And the city of Moroni did sink into the depths of the sea, and the inhabitants thereof were drowned.
10 And the earth was carried up upon the city of Moronihah, that in the place of the city there became a great mountain.
11 And there was a great and terrible destruction in the land southward.
12 But behold, there was a more great and terrible destruction in the land northward; for behold, the whole face of the land was changed, because of the tempest and the whirlwinds, and the thunderings and the lightnings, and the exceedingly great quaking of the whole earth;
13 And the highways were broken up, and the level roads were spoiled, and many smooth places became rough.
14 And many great and notable cities were sunk, and many were burned, and many were shaken till the buildings thereof had fallen to the earth, and the inhabitants thereof were slain, and the places were left desolate.
15 And there were some cities which remained; but the damage thereof was exceedingly great, and there were many in them who were slain.
16 And there were some who were carried away in the whirlwind; and whither they went no man knoweth, save they know that they were carried away.
17 And thus the face of the whole earth became deformed, because of the tempests, and the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the quaking of the earth.
18 And behold, the rocks were rent in twain; they were broken up upon the face of the whole earth, insomuch that they were found in broken fragments, and in seams and in cracks, upon all the face of the land.
19 And it came to pass that when the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the storm, and the tempest, and the quakings of the earth did cease--for behold, they did last for about the space of three hours; and it was said by some that the time was greater; nevertheless, all these great and terrible things were done in about the space of three hours--and then behold, there was darkness upon the face of the land.
(3 Ne 8:5-19)
Stump with Hatchet Found on Stump Eighty Feet Below Ground While Digging a Well in 1826.
A gentleman who was living near the town of Cincinnati, in 1826, on the upper level, had occasion to sink a well for his accommodation; he persevered in digging to the depth of eighty feet without finding water, but, still persisting in the attempt, his workmen found themselves obstructed by a substance, which resisted their labor, though evidently not stone. They cleared the surface and sides from the earth bedded around it, when there appeared the stump of a tree, three feet in diameter and two feet high, which had been cut down with an axe. The blows of the axe were yet visible. It was nearly of the color and apparent character of coal, but had not the friable and fusible quality of that substance. Ten feet below the water sprang up, and the well is now in constant supply and high repute.
In Morse's Universal Geography, first volume, p. 142, the discovery of the stump is corroborated: "In digging a well in Cincinnati, the stump of a tree was found in a sound state, ninety feet below the surface; and in digging another well, at the same place, another stump was found at ninety-four feet below the surface, which had evident marks of the axe, and on its top there appeared as if some iron had been consumed by rust."
We might fill a volume with accounts of American antiquities, all going to show that this country has been inhabited by a people who possessed a knowledge of the arts and sciences, who built cities, cultivated the earth, and who were in possession of a written language. But the things which we have here introduced are abundantly sufficient for our purpose. If a few characters in Hebrew have been found in the earth in America, written on parchment, then it is just as easy to admit that a whole volume has been found in the earth in America, written on plates in Egyptian characters. The astonishing facts of the stumps found eighty or ninety feet under the ground at Cincinnati, and similar discoveries in many other parts of North and South America, such as buried cities, and other antiquities, all go to prove that there has been a mighty convulsion and revolution, not only of nations, but of nature; and such a convulsion as is nowhere else so reasonably accounted for, as in the following extraordinary and wonderful account of events which transpired in this country, during the crucifixion of Messiah, which we extract from the Book of Mormon, 3 Nephi 8:5.
"And it came to pass in the thirty and fourth year, in the first month, on the fourth day of the month, there arose a great storm, such an one as never had been known in all the land. And there was also a great and terrible tempest: and there was terrible thunder, insomuch that it did shake the whole earth as if it was about to divide asunder. And there were exceeding sharp lightnings, such as never had been known in all the land. And the city of Zarahemla did take fire. And the city of Moroni did sink into the depths of the sea, and the inhabitants thereof were drowned. And the earth was carried up upon the city of Moronihah, that in the place of the city thereof, there became a great mountain. And there was a great and terrible destruction in the land southward. But, behold, there was a more great and terrible destruction in the land northward; for behold, the whole face of the land was changed, because of the tempest and the whirlwinds, and the thunderings and the lightnings, and the exceeding great quaking of the whole earth; And the highways were broken up, and the level roads were spoiled, and many smooth places became rough. And many great and notable cities were sunk, and many were burned, and many were shaken till the buildings thereof had fallen to the earth, and the inhabitants thereof were slain, and the places were left desolate. And there were some cities which remained; but the damage thereof was exceedingly great, and there were many in them who were slain. And there were some who were carried away in the whirlwind; and whither they went, no man knoweth, save they know that they were carried away. And thus the face of the whole earth became deformed, because of the tempests, and the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the quaking of the earth. And behold, the rocks were rent in twain; they were broken up upon the face of the whole earth, insomuch that they were found in broken fragments, and in seams, and in cracks, upon all the fact of the land.
(Parley P. Pratt, A Voice of Warning , p.79-,82-83)
|The form of the ancient symbol is significant in itself. Inscribed in the Andes on a tomb wall, and in Tel Qasile Israel on a container once carried there on a Phoenician ship from a distant place called Ophir, the glyph appears to be composed of elements common in the early writing of the Sinai peninsula and, in particular, of the Nabatean people. These written elements, now called "proto-Sinaitic," not only formed the Semitic language that is the forerunner of the later written Hebrew; they also resemble others in the writing of various other cultures that extend across India, the Orient, Oceania, Peru.... Authorities can see some of these elements in the Easter Island script of Rongo-Rongo and in the Brahmi script of South Asia.|
Book of Mormon inscribed on golden plates and buried in the ground by Moroni. What?!!! A Golden Bible in a Stone Box?
This gold plate of Darius proclaims his majesty and the vast extent of his Persian empire. It was buried in a neatly made stone box in 516-515 B.C. at Persepolis. This gold plate and its duplicate silver tablet were discovered in 1933. Similarly, the Nephites of the sixth century B.C. kept two sets of records on gold plates, one of which was buried in a stone box in 421 A.D. Courtesy Paul R. Cheesman.
Stone box of metallic plates inscribed with an unknown script. The items were said to have been discovered by John Brewer. All plates shown in this article were reportedly found in the same receptacle. Photograph ©, courtesy of Gary Taylor, courtesy Ancient American Magazine
The Decalogue Stones
from Midwestern Epigraphic Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1993
"An Annotated Transcription of the Newark Decalogue Stone"
by J. Huston McCulloch, Ph.D.
"The Newark Decalogue stone was found during 1860 in an ancient burial mound
ten miles south of Newark Ohio. ... The inscription on the stone has been
translated by McCarty, Naveh, Bloom, Polansky, and others, as containing an
abridgement of the Exodus 20 version of the Ten Commandments or Decalogue.
The text begins at the top of the arch over the head of the robed and
bearded figure identified as Moses, ...
The text is run on, with no spaces or word dividers. No terminal letter
forms, consonant points, or vowel points are used. ...
Wyrick, who found the stone, is accused by many (e.g., Lepper 1990) of
having personally forged the inscription, copying it from a Hebrew Bible in
his possession. However, a careful comparison of my transcription to
Wyrick's woodcut shows that Wyrick made no less than 38 significant errors,
in which he either made a legible letter illegible, or turned a legible
letter into a different letter. This is a 14.8% error rate. He routinely
confuses D with R, T with H, and W with Y, and inverts several letters. In
only one of these 38 cases (letter 10.9, which he read as Y instead of the
actual W, an error he frequently makes elsewhere) does his woodcut give the
expected letter where the stone gives an unexpected letter. Yet, the
pamphlet in which this garbled text appeared was Wyrick's best attempt at
convincing the world that the stone was a genuine Hebrew artifact. Wyrick
clearly did not even understand the inscription's peculiar, yet consistently
applied, alphabet, and therefore could not have been its author.
The inscriptions on the four sides:
· Qedosh Qedoshim "Holy of Holies"
· Melek Eretz "King of the Earth"
· Torath YHWH "The Law of God"
· Devor YHWH "The Word of God"
Did Wyrick Fake Them?
“Archaeologists, following Whittlesey (1872), have generally believed that the Decalogue and Keystone are hoaxes concocted by Wyrick himself.”
“However, in 1861 Wyrick published a pamphlet (reproduced by Schenck) containing his account of the discoveries, and included woodcuts depicting, to the best of his ability, the inscriptions on the stones. A careful comparison of Wyrick's woodcuts of the Decalogue to the actual inscription (McCulloch 1992) shows that out of 256 letters, Wyrick made no less than 38 significant errors, in which he either made a legible letter illegible, turned a legible letter into a different letter, or omitted the letter altogether. Whoever carved the Decalogue stone had only imperfect knowledge of Hebrew, and introduced a few errors of his own. Wyrick, however, piled his own errors on top of these. He clearly did not even understand the inscription's peculiar, yet consistently applied, alphabet, and therefore could not have been its author.”
“Moses on the stone has a mild expression and fine features. He is wearing a turban and flowing robe, and is either holding a tablet or wearing a breastplate. Wyrick's Moses, on the other hand, glares over a projecting nose. He is wearing a beret, Mrs. Wyrick's 19th century dress, and a minister's ecclesiastical shawl. Wyrick was evidently a fine draftsman, but not much at life drawing. Beverley H. Moseley, Jr., former art director of the Ohio Historical Society, has compared the carving of Moses on the stone to Wyrick's woodcut copy. It is his opinion as a professional artist that the same person could not have made these two images.”
“In Wyrick's drawing of the Keystone, he confuses he with taw, so that the inscription TWRT YHWH, (Torath YHWH, The Law of God) appears as HWRH YHWH, or Horah God, which amusingly could be taken to be a reference to a popular Israeli folk-dance. Wyrick therefore could not have produced the Keystone either.”
“Archaeologist Stephen Williams claims that Wyrick was "very committed to the Lost Tribes of Israel as the origin of the Moundbuilders" prior to his discovery of the Keystone, with the implication that Wyrick may therefore have fabricated the Keystone and Decalogue in order to support his pet theory (1991:168).”
“However, Wyrick somehow neglected to mention this alleged obsession in any of his surviving correspondence or even in his very pamphlet on the stones. He was described at the time of the Keystone discovery as merely an "enthusiast for natural science" (by Charles Whittlesey in the Ohio Farmer July 14, 1860, reprinted by Schenck). Wyrick's documented interests, besides mound exploration and surveying, included geo-magnetism, anomalous boulders, river terraces, beaver dams and sorghum processing. “
“In any event, the "Lost Tribes of Israel" would have used the pre-Exilic "Old Hebrew" alphabet, rather than the post-Exilic or "Square Hebrew" alphabet adopted in the time of Ezra by the Jews (by definition the "Unlost" tribe), and which appears, in two versions, on both these stones. There is therefore no question of a "Lost Tribes" connection here, Williams' misconception to the contrary notwithstanding.”
Note: The Book of Mormon begins at 600 BC which was just prior to the invasion of Nebuchadnezzar.
Bat Creek Stone
The Bat Creek Stone was discovered in 1889 in an undisturbed burial mound in Eastern Tennessee by the Smithsonian's Mound Survey project.
In 1971, Cyrus Gordon identified the letters inscribed on the stone as Paleo-Hebrew of approximately the first or second century A.D. According to him, the five letters to the left of the comma-shaped word divider read, from right to left, LYHWD, or "for Judea."
In 1988, wood fragments found with the inscription were Carbon-14 dated to somewhere between 32 A.D. and 769 A.D. These dates are consistent with the apparent date of the letters.
Today the stone resides out of sight in a back room of the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.
“In November of 1860, David Wyrick of Newark, Ohio found an inscribed stone in a burial mound about 10 miles south of Newark. The stone is inscribed on all sides with a condensed version of the Ten Commandments or Decalogue, in a peculiar form of post-Exilic square Hebrew letters.”
“The robed and bearded figure on the front is identified as Moses in letters fanning over his head. The inscription is carved into a fine grained stone that has eluded geological identification. “
“The stone is black to the eye, although it takes on a brown tone in these overexposed color photographs.”
“The inscribed stone was found inside a sandstone box, smooth on the outside, and hollowed out to exactly hold the stone on the inside.”
“Several months earlier, in June of 1860, Wyrick had found an additional stone, also inscribed in Hebrew letters. This stone, shown above, is popularly known as the "Keystone" because of its general shape.”
“However, it is too rounded to have actually served as a keystone. It was apparently intended to be held with the knob in the right hand, and turned to read the four sides in succession, perhaps repetitively. It might also have been suspended by the knob for some purpose. Wyrick found the Keystone within what is now a developed section of Newark, at the bottom of a pit adjacent to the extensive ancient Hopewellian earthworks there (c. 100 BC - 500 AD).”
“The letters on the Keystone are nearly standard Hebrew, rather than the very peculiar alphabet of the Decalogue stone. These letters were already developed at the time of the Dead Sea Scrolls (circa 200-100 B.C.), and so are broadly consistent with any time frame from the Hopewellian era to the present. For the past 1000 years or so, Hebrew has most commonly been written with vowel points and consonant points that are missing on both the Decalogue and Keystone. The absence of points is therefore suggestive, but not conclusive, of an earlier date.”
Quotes and pictures taken from Crystalinks.com
The Decalogue stone itself, along with the "Keystone," is in the
Johnson-Humrickhouse Museum at 300 N. Whitewoman Street in Roscoe Village,
Coshocton, Ohio 43812, (614) 622-8710. Alrutz's pamphlet is available from
the museum, as are clear, sunlit photographs of the stones." END of
The "Keystone" or "Holy Stone" of Newark, Ohio was identified at the time of
discovery and read by Hebrew scholars of the day. It reads: "Laws of
Yahweh-Holy-of-Holies-Word of Yahweh-King of the Earth." Its exact purpose
is unknown, however, its sides create an angle of 23.5 degrees, the exact
inclination of the earth's spin axis, an important angle used to find the
equinox each spring for Passover and other feast days which followed
throughout the year.
The Story (from Ancient American Magazine)
after the turn of the last century, young George Keller and a lad named Lone Eagle
were playing among the foothills of the Rocky Mountains above the farm owned by George's
father near Manti, Utah. The Kellers were the descendants of freed black slaves, who
migrated to the American southwest following the Civil War. Coming to a massive overhang,
the Indian boy pointed to a hole in the mountain side and explained, "This is a
special place, the Cave of the Great Spirit. My father says it is the holy place of a
people who are dead, and that a greatchief protects those who are buried there. My father
was shown this place by his father when he was a kid. You are the only person other
than our people who knows about this place. You must promise not to tell anyone of our
secret! Follow me and I will show you inside." The friends explored the site
together, and from the cave floor George picked up a few flint heads to play with in his
room back home. Over the years, he kept his promise and never told anyone about the
chamber guarded by the spirit of a great Indian chief. Lone Eagle eventually movedaway,
and George worked on the Keller farm. He lived in a hillside shed above the farm, not far
from the cave of his boyhood experience, to the east. But he rarely visited the site again
and took no further interest in it, until he met John Brewer, many years later.
"Brewer lived with his wife in the small town of Moroni, Utah, where he did odd jobs for farmers in the area. For recreation, he collected Indian arrow-heads, and eventually assembled an impressive collection. In early spring, 1955, his numerous artifacts were displayed at the Sanpete County fair, held annually at Manti. While discussing his finds with friends at a local cafe, he was approached by a now elderly negro, George Keller, who told Brewer about a secret cave where many more arrowheads were to be found.
"As Brewer recorded in his personal journal for May 10, "I went and looked
for the place but I couldn't find it so I went and asked him (Keller) again where it was
but all that I could get was a laugh from him. I thought that he was pulling a fast one on
me so I let it go at that." Nine days later, "I went out to the Keller place and
offered him some wine with the promise that he would show me the place he had told me
about a while back. He said that he would not only show me the place but that we would go
in! "No wonder I couldn't find it; I was on the wrong hill. I went into the cave and
found 30 arrowheads right off. I went back to the truck and thanked the man. I then asked
how he came to know of the cave and he said that he and an Indian boy played there as an